Uttar Pradesh is the largest copper and copper-making region in India. The utensils are made at Etawah, Varanasi, and Sitapur. Ritual articles are made mainly in copper-like tamrapatras, panch patras which holds articles of worship, sinhasans which are the seats for deities, and the kanchanthals which are plates for offering flowers and sweets. Varanasi is also known for icon-casting. Art metal ware is an ancient craft of India and the Islamic influence enriched the craft further. The metal handicrafts of Moradabad exemplify this influence.
Engraving, one of the earliest processes of embellishing metal ware is practised in Moradabad. Various tools such as the kalam — a steel-pointed pencil — are used to trace the pattern on to the brass, silver, or copper. A thappi and tipai are then used for the actual engraving. Moradabad engravers can produce extremely fine and delicate work, which is now exported the world over.