Daana or Tangaliya weaving is practised in the Surendranagar district in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Without any mechanical device, the design components are reinforced on the fabric in a unique manner. The design is embedded on the fabric by twisting loose white cotton or woollen yarn around a group of two or three warp threads by hand, giving a bead-like appearance on the surface.
A unique weaving technique known only to the Dangasia community, Tangaliya is identified by the tiny dots of extra weft that are twisted to give the effect of bead embroidery. The fabric, woven on a pit loom, is usually narrow in width and 20 feet long. It is then cut into half and the two sections are stitched together. The intricate method of twisting the extra weft while the weaving is going on creates beautiful linear patterns and forms.
Mainly practiced by the Dangasia community, this form of weaving requires high skill level and an eye for accuracy. This intricate process of twisting extra weft while weaving creates beautiful geometrical patterns and forms. The essence of Tangaliya weaving is the compositions created by colourful dots, which is simultaneously created on both the sides of the fabric.
The Dangasias have experimented with many different types of yarn over the years, ranging from wool, silk to cotton and acrylic. Yarn is the most important raw materials used to make contemporary Daana weave garments. Depending upon the orders and market requirements, combinations of these yarns are used.
Traditionally, Tangaliya weaving was done in wool, as it was hand spun in situ it was readily available. Due to the availability of ready-made yarns of a variety of fibres, hand spun wool is not used anymore. Due to the change in market conditions in the last ten years, the Dangasias have started using cotton to produce a diverse range of products.
There are a variety of Tangaliya types: Tangaliya are Ramraj, Dhusla, Lobdi, Gadia, and Charmalia. Peacock, ambo (mango tree), and khajuri (date palm tree) are the most commonly used motifs, which have a geometric and graphic feel. The patterns are created by arranging these motifs in various ways.