I came to India to learn about how the country, culture and currency of my birth are changing the rest of the world. I came to India to discover how a country three thousand years in the making could be loosing its traditional heritage to modern market forces and factory-made goods. I came to India to immerse myself in the ever evolving world of Indian arts and crafts and examine their makers’ statuses. When I applied for my Fulbright grant, now almost two years ago, I had in mind a project full of hope, of homegrown resistance to westernization; full of promise for a better life for the rural artisan with the increase of technology through rural development programs. Instead I found a few brave organizations that are working relentlessly against the odds to provide both increased income and/or cultural preservation. Among the most well known of these organizations is Seva Mandir and its craft/income generation program, Sadhna. So after spending half a year doing research on various Indian folk crafts and craft development programs in the bustling city of New Delhi, I set out for the much smaller and less hectic city of Udaipur, located in Southern Rajasthan. I was to spend the next two weeks working as a volunteer for Sadhna and discovering what goes on behind the scenes at a typical development NGO.
Dr. Mohan Singh Mehta began Seva Mandir in 1966 in an attempt to raise awareness about the “particular backwardness and political stagnation of Rajasthan.” The organization started with a campaign for literacy but soon found that a steady income and proper nutrition and health were needed before villagers could concentrate on learning how to read. In the 1970s Seva Mandir’s popularity often encouraged its village level employees to run for government offices. Unfortunately, once there, the new office holders found they had little power to change the corruption. This prompted Seva Mandir to form village groups in the 1980s. Later that decade, Village Committees were established to help distribute aid from alternative organizations for poverty alleviation. Seva Mandir began to realize that the government alone could not solve the problems facing rural Udaipur. Currently, Seva Mandir is working in 583 villages in six block districts educating villagers about natural resource management, education, health, women and child development and institution building.
|The women did not see the lack of physical strain and the option of working from home as benefits that outweighed the income cut. However, the most common reason for drop-out was the shifting of villages at the time of marriage. Many of the women who worked for Sadhna had to leave their paternal village at marriage, sometimes into a village that was either too far removed from Sadhna or did not have a Seva Mandir block office in the district.|
|Another problem arose when Sadhna began encouraging the women to attend exhibitions on their own. Formerly, a Sadhna staff member would accompany the women to exhibitions and manage the sales and stock records. Despite Sadhna’s care to match all illiterate women with literate ones, they still had a difficult time in managing the records and sorting the stock after the exhibition was over. The Sadhna staff, however, feels that with more training and exposure the women will be successful in the future.
A Personal Look:
|Jaya is in charge of production and distribution of work. She must calculate how many pieces are to be made each year and then break that down into the number of pieces to be made each month, each week and each day. She delegates the responsibility of creating these garments, bags and home-decor items to women from 10 different areas. However daunting this task might seem, what impressed me most about Jaya’s dedication to her work was summed up when she said, “We have three hundred women who need work. Giving them work is more important than profit.”
Organizing and running workshops is another of Jaya’s many tasks at Sadhna. I had the occasion of witnessing the end of one of these workshops on the first day of my internship. The workshops were organized so that the women would generate images to be used on future fabric pieces.
|After the workshop the images would be passed onto designers who would modify the patterns to printing block friendly sizes. In that particular session, Jaya was trying to obtain about twenty different designs for printing blocks from each woman.
This was quite a task considering the self-consciousness that the women clearly exhibited when they were handed a pencil and crayons. Jaya noted, “They said we don’t know how to use pencils, we don’t know how to draw.” So Jaya showed them images of traditional designed from a well-known book on block printing and Indian motifs. This encouraged the women who then began sketchy drawings on paper. However, some of the women broke away and started creating images with chalk on the pavement. Both Jaya and I saw right away that these images were far better than the ones on paper. The women, trained from a young age in the traditional Rajasthani art of rangoli, just felt more comfortable with the hard, unlimited surface of the ground than the small, thin and contained space provided on paper.
The designs the women eventually came up with were clearly the symbolic images that are rooted in their minds from birth and passed down from one generation to another. They reflected the truest instances of Indian philosophy in their repetitive and circular motifs. They were infused with both the culture of Rajasthan and the imagination of these liberated women.
By Way of a Conclusion:
|Despite the slowly eroding soil, the dying forest cover and the scarcity of water, it was the culture that truly sustained the people of that land. It was the images and songs and traditions that helped them survive the years of struggle. And it is organizations like Sadhna that see that very point and work to create an environment were craft can provide economic sustenance along with cultural nourishment.|
|All pictures courtesy of http/www.sevamandir.org|